胡凯 · 更新于 2018-10-19 17:00:45

展示Card翻转动画

编写:XizhiXu - 原文:http://developer.android.com/training/animation/cardflip.html

这节课展示如何使用自定义Fragment动画实现Card翻转动画。Card翻转动画通过模拟Card翻转的效果实现view内容的切换。

下面是card翻转动画的样子:

如果你想直接查看整个例子,下载并运行App样例然后选择Card翻转例子。查看下列文件中的代码实现:

  • src/CardFlipActivity.java
  • animator/card_flip_right_in.xml
  • animator/card_flip_right_out.xml
  • animator/card_flip_left_in.xml
  • animator/card_flip_left_out.xml
  • layout/fragment_card_back.xml
  • layout/fragment_card_front.xml

创建Animator

创建Card翻转动画,我们需要两个Animator。一个让正面的card的右侧向左翻转渐出,一个让背面的Card向右翻转渐入。我们还需要两个 Animator让背面的card的右侧向左翻转渐入,一个让向右翻转渐入。

card_flip_left_in.xml

<set xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">
    <!-- Before rotating, immediately set the alpha to 0. -->
    <objectAnimator
        android:valueFrom="1.0"
        android:valueTo="0.0"
        android:propertyName="alpha"
        android:duration="0" />

    <!-- Rotate. -->
    <objectAnimator
        android:valueFrom="-180"
        android:valueTo="0"
        android:propertyName="rotationY"
        android:interpolator="@android:interpolator/accelerate_decelerate"
        android:duration="@integer/card_flip_time_full" />

    <!-- Half-way through the rotation (see startOffset), set the alpha to 1. -->
    <objectAnimator
        android:valueFrom="0.0"
        android:valueTo="1.0"
        android:propertyName="alpha"
        android:startOffset="@integer/card_flip_time_half"
        android:duration="1" />
</set>

card_flip_left_out.xml

<set xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">
    <!-- Rotate. -->
    <objectAnimator
        android:valueFrom="0"
        android:valueTo="180"
        android:propertyName="rotationY"
        android:interpolator="@android:interpolator/accelerate_decelerate"
        android:duration="@integer/card_flip_time_full" />

    <!-- Half-way through the rotation (see startOffset), set the alpha to 0. -->
    <objectAnimator
        android:valueFrom="1.0"
        android:valueTo="0.0"
        android:propertyName="alpha"
        android:startOffset="@integer/card_flip_time_half"
        android:duration="1" />
</set>

card_flip_right_in.xml

<set xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">
    <!-- Before rotating, immediately set the alpha to 0. -->
    <objectAnimator
        android:valueFrom="1.0"
        android:valueTo="0.0"
        android:propertyName="alpha"
        android:duration="0" />

    <!-- Rotate. -->
    <objectAnimator
        android:valueFrom="180"
        android:valueTo="0"
        android:propertyName="rotationY"
        android:interpolator="@android:interpolator/accelerate_decelerate"
        android:duration="@integer/card_flip_time_full" />

    <!-- Half-way through the rotation (see startOffset), set the alpha to 1. -->
    <objectAnimator
        android:valueFrom="0.0"
        android:valueTo="1.0"
        android:propertyName="alpha"
        android:startOffset="@integer/card_flip_time_half"
        android:duration="1" />
</set>

card_flip_right_out.xml

<set xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">
    <!-- Rotate. -->
    <objectAnimator
        android:valueFrom="0"
        android:valueTo="-180"
        android:propertyName="rotationY"
        android:interpolator="@android:interpolator/accelerate_decelerate"
        android:duration="@integer/card_flip_time_full" />

    <!-- Half-way through the rotation (see startOffset), set the alpha to 0. -->
    <objectAnimator
        android:valueFrom="1.0"
        android:valueTo="0.0"
        android:propertyName="alpha"
        android:startOffset="@integer/card_flip_time_half"
        android:duration="1" />
</set>

创建View

Card的每一面是一个独立的布局,比如两屏文字,两张图片,或者任何View的组合。然后我们将在应用动画的Fragment里面用到这两个布局。下面的布局创建了展示文本Card的一面:

<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:orientation="vertical"
    android:background="#a6c"
    android:padding="16dp"
    android:gravity="bottom">

    <TextView android:id="@android:id/text1"
        style="?android:textAppearanceLarge"
        android:textStyle="bold"
        android:textColor="#fff"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:text="@string/card_back_title" />

    <TextView style="?android:textAppearanceSmall"
        android:textAllCaps="true"
        android:textColor="#80ffffff"
        android:textStyle="bold"
        android:lineSpacingMultiplier="1.2"
        android:layout_width="match_parent"
        android:layout_height="wrap_content"
        android:text="@string/card_back_description" />

</LinearLayout>

Card另一面显示一个 ImageView

<ImageView xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent"
    android:src="@drawable/image1"
    android:scaleType="centerCrop"
    android:contentDescription="@string/description_image_1" />

创建Fragment

为Card正反面创建Fragment,这些类从 onCreateView() 方法中分别为每个Framgent返回你之前创建的布局。在想要显示Card的父Activity中,我们可以创建对应的Fragment 实例。下面的例子展示父Activity内嵌套的Fragment:

public class CardFlipActivity extends Activity {
    ...
    /**
     * A fragment representing the front of the card.
     */
    public class CardFrontFragment extends Fragment {
        @Override
        public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater, ViewGroup container,
                Bundle savedInstanceState) {
            return inflater.inflate(R.layout.fragment_card_front, container, false);
        }
    }

    /**
     * A fragment representing the back of the card.
     */
    public class CardBackFragment extends Fragment {
        @Override
        public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater, ViewGroup container,
                Bundle savedInstanceState) {
            return inflater.inflate(R.layout.fragment_card_back, container, false);
        }
    }
}

应用card翻转动画

现在,我们需要在父Activity中展示Fragment。为此,首先创建Activity的布局。下面例子创建了一个可以在运行时添加Fragment的 FrameLayout

<FrameLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:id="@+id/container"
    android:layout_width="match_parent"
    android:layout_height="match_parent" />

在Activity代码中,把先前创建的布局设置成其ContentVew。当Activity创建时展示一个默认的Fragment是个不错的注意。所以下面的Activity样例表明了如何默认显示卡片正面:

public class CardFlipActivity extends Activity {

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_activity_card_flip);

        if (savedInstanceState == null) {
            getFragmentManager()
                    .beginTransaction()
                    .add(R.id.container, new CardFrontFragment())
                    .commit();
        }
    }
    ...
}

既然现在显示了卡片的正面,我们可以在合适时机用翻转动画显示卡片背面了。创建一个方法来显示背面,它需要做下面这些事情:

  • 将Fragment转换设置我们刚做的自定义动画

  • 用新Fragment替换当前显示的Fragment,并且应用之前创建的动画到该事件中。

  • 添加之前显示的Fragment到Fragment的回退栈(back stack)中,所以当用户按下 Back 键时,Card会翻转回来。
private void flipCard() {
    if (mShowingBack) {
        getFragmentManager().popBackStack();
        return;
    }

    // Flip to the back.

    mShowingBack = true;

    // Create and commit a new fragment transaction that adds the fragment for the back of
    // the card, uses custom animations, and is part of the fragment manager's back stack.

    getFragmentManager()
            .beginTransaction()

            // Replace the default fragment animations with animator resources representing
            // rotations when switching to the back of the card, as well as animator
            // resources representing rotations when flipping back to the front (e.g. when
            // the system Back button is pressed).
            .setCustomAnimations(
                    R.animator.card_flip_right_in, R.animator.card_flip_right_out,
                    R.animator.card_flip_left_in, R.animator.card_flip_left_out)

            // Replace any fragments currently in the container view with a fragment
            // representing the next page (indicated by the just-incremented currentPage
            // variable).
            .replace(R.id.container, new CardBackFragment())

            // Add this transaction to the back stack, allowing users to press Back
            // to get to the front of the card.
            .addToBackStack(null)

            // Commit the transaction.
            .commit();
}
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