胡凯 · 更新于 2018-10-20 20:00:47

Fragments之间的交互

编写:fastcome1985 - 原文:http://developer.android.com/training/basics/fragments/communicating.html

  • 为了重用Fragment UI组件,我们应该把每一个fragment都构建成完全的自包含的、模块化的组件,定义他们自己的布局与行为。定义好这些模块化的Fragment后,就可以让他们关联activity,使他们与application的逻辑结合起来,实现全局的复合的UI。

  • 通常fragment之间可能会需要交互,比如基于用户事件改变fragment的内容。所有fragment之间的交互需要通过他们关联的activity,两个fragment之间不应该直接交互。

定义一个接口

  • 为了让fragment与activity交互,可以在Fragment 类中定义一个接口,并在activity中实现。Fragment在他们生命周期的onAttach()方法中获取接口的实现,然后调用接口的方法来与Activity交互。

下面是一个fragment与activity交互的例子:

public class HeadlinesFragment extends ListFragment {
    OnHeadlineSelectedListener mCallback;
    // Container Activity must implement this interface
    public interface OnHeadlineSelectedListener {
        public void onArticleSelected(int position);
    }
    @Override
    public void onAttach(Activity activity) {
        super.onAttach(activity);
        // This makes sure that the container activity has implemented
        // the callback interface. If not, it throws an exception
        try {
            mCallback = (OnHeadlineSelectedListener) activity;
        } catch (ClassCastException e) {
            throw new ClassCastException(activity.toString()
                    + " must implement OnHeadlineSelectedListener");
        }
    }
    ...
}
  • 现在Fragment就可以通过调用OnHeadlineSelectedListener接口实例的mCallback中的onArticleSelected()(也可以是其它方法)方法与activity传递消息。

  • 举个例子,在fragment中的下面的方法在用户点击列表条目时被调用,fragment 用回调接口来传递事件给父Activity.
 @Override
    public void onListItemClick(ListView l, View v, int position, long id) {
        // Send the event to the host activity
        mCallback.onArticleSelected(position);
    }

实现接口

  • 为了接收回调事件,宿主activity必须实现在Fragment中定义的接口。

  • 举个例子,下面的activity实现了上面例子中的接口。
public static class MainActivity extends Activity
        implements HeadlinesFragment.OnHeadlineSelectedListener{
    ...
    public void onArticleSelected(int position) {
        // The user selected the headline of an article from the HeadlinesFragment
        // Do something here to display that article
    }
}

传消息给Fragment

  • 宿主activity通过findFragmentById()方法获取fragment的实例,然后直接调用Fragment的public方法来向fragment传递消息。

  • 例如,假设上面所示的activity可能包含另外一个fragment,这个fragment用来展示从上面的回调方法中返回的指定的数据。在这种情况下,activity可以把从回调方法中接收到的信息传递给这个展示数据的Fragment.
public static class MainActivity extends Activity
        implements HeadlinesFragment.OnHeadlineSelectedListener{
    ...
    public void onArticleSelected(int position) {
        // The user selected the headline of an article from the HeadlinesFragment
        // Do something here to display that article
        ArticleFragment articleFrag = (ArticleFragment)
                getSupportFragmentManager().findFragmentById(R.id.article_fragment);
        if (articleFrag != null) {
            // If article frag is available, we're in two-pane layout...
            // Call a method in the ArticleFragment to update its content
            articleFrag.updateArticleView(position);
        } else {
            // Otherwise, we're in the one-pane layout and must swap frags...
            // Create fragment and give it an argument for the selected article
            ArticleFragment newFragment = new ArticleFragment();
            Bundle args = new Bundle();
            args.putInt(ArticleFragment.ARG_POSITION, position);
            newFragment.setArguments(args);
            FragmentTransaction transaction = getSupportFragmentManager().beginTransaction();
            // Replace whatever is in the fragment_container view with this fragment,
            // and add the transaction to the back stack so the user can navigate back
            transaction.replace(R.id.fragment_container, newFragment);
            transaction.addToBackStack(null);
            // Commit the transaction
            transaction.commit();
        }
    }
}
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