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极客学院团队出品 · 更新于 2018-09-24 21:00:44

SQL UNION 子句

SQL UNION 子句/运算符用于将两个或者更多的 SELECT 语句的运算结果组合起来。

在使用 UNION 的时候,每个 SELECT 语句必须有相同数量的选中列、相同数量的列表达式、相同的数据类型,并且它们出现的次序要一致,不过长度不一定要相同。

语法

UNION 子句的基本语法如下所示:

    SELECT column1 [, column2 ]
    FROM table1 [, table2 ]
    [WHERE condition]

    UNION

    SELECT column1 [, column2 ]
    FROM table1 [, table2 ]
    [WHERE condition]

这里的条件可以是任何根据你的需要而设的条件。

示例

考虑如下两张表,(a)CUSTOMERS 表:

    +----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
    | ID | NAME     | AGE | ADDRESS   | SALARY   |
    +----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
    |  1 | Ramesh   |  32 | Ahmedabad |  2000.00 |
    |  2 | Khilan   |  25 | Delhi     |  1500.00 |
    |  3 | kaushik  |  23 | Kota      |  2000.00 |
    |  4 | Chaitali |  25 | Mumbai    |  6500.00 |
    |  5 | Hardik   |  27 | Bhopal    |  8500.00 |
    |  6 | Komal    |  22 | MP        |  4500.00 |
    |  7 | Muffy    |  24 | Indore    | 10000.00 |
    +----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+

(b)另一张表是 ORDERS 表,如下所示:

    +-----+---------------------+-------------+--------+
    |OID  | DATE                | CUSTOMER_ID | AMOUNT |
    +-----+---------------------+-------------+--------+
    | 102 | 2009-10-08 00:00:00 |           3 |   3000 |
    | 100 | 2009-10-08 00:00:00 |           3 |   1500 |
    | 101 | 2009-11-20 00:00:00 |           2 |   1560 |
    | 103 | 2008-05-20 00:00:00 |           4 |   2060 |
    +-----+---------------------+-------------+--------+

现在,让我们用 SELECT 语句将这两张表连接起来:

    SQL> SELECT  ID, NAME, AMOUNT, DATE
         FROM CUSTOMERS
         LEFT JOIN ORDERS
         ON CUSTOMERS.ID = ORDERS.CUSTOMER_ID
    UNION
         SELECT  ID, NAME, AMOUNT, DATE
         FROM CUSTOMERS
         RIGHT JOIN ORDERS
         ON CUSTOMERS.ID = ORDERS.CUSTOMER_ID;

结果如下所示:

    +------+----------+--------+---------------------+
    | ID   | NAME     | AMOUNT | DATE                |
    +------+----------+--------+---------------------+
    |    1 | Ramesh   |   NULL | NULL                |
    |    2 | Khilan   |   1560 | 2009-11-20 00:00:00 |
    |    3 | kaushik  |   3000 | 2009-10-08 00:00:00 |
    |    3 | kaushik  |   1500 | 2009-10-08 00:00:00 |
    |    4 | Chaitali |   2060 | 2008-05-20 00:00:00 |
    |    5 | Hardik   |   NULL | NULL                |
    |    6 | Komal    |   NULL | NULL                |
    |    7 | Muffy    |   NULL | NULL                |
    +------+----------+--------+---------------------+

UNION ALL 子句:

UNION ALL 运算符用于将两个 SELECT 语句的结果组合在一起,重复行也包含在内。

UNION ALL 运算符所遵从的规则与 UNION 一致。

语法:

UNION ALL的基本语法如下:

    SELECT column1 [, column2 ]
    FROM table1 [, table2 ]
    [WHERE condition]

    UNION ALL

    SELECT column1 [, column2 ]
    FROM table1 [, table2 ]
    [WHERE condition]

示例:

考虑如下两张表,(a)CUSTOMERS 表:

    +----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
    | ID | NAME     | AGE | ADDRESS   | SALARY   |
    +----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
    |  1 | Ramesh   |  32 | Ahmedabad |  2000.00 |
    |  2 | Khilan   |  25 | Delhi     |  1500.00 |
    |  3 | kaushik  |  23 | Kota      |  2000.00 |
    |  4 | Chaitali |  25 | Mumbai    |  6500.00 |
    |  5 | Hardik   |  27 | Bhopal    |  8500.00 |
    |  6 | Komal    |  22 | MP        |  4500.00 |
    |  7 | Muffy    |  24 | Indore    | 10000.00 |
    +----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+

(b)另一张表是 ORDERS 表,如下所示:

    +-----+---------------------+-------------+--------+
    |OID  | DATE                | CUSTOMER_ID | AMOUNT |
    +-----+---------------------+-------------+--------+
    | 102 | 2009-10-08 00:00:00 |           3 |   3000 |
    | 100 | 2009-10-08 00:00:00 |           3 |   1500 |
    | 101 | 2009-11-20 00:00:00 |           2 |   1560 |
    | 103 | 2008-05-20 00:00:00 |           4 |   2060 |
    +-----+---------------------+-------------+--------+

结果如下所示:

    +------+----------+--------+---------------------+
    | ID   | NAME     | AMOUNT | DATE                |
    +------+----------+--------+---------------------+
    |    1 | Ramesh   |   NULL | NULL                |
    |    2 | Khilan   |   1560 | 2009-11-20 00:00:00 |
    |    3 | kaushik  |   3000 | 2009-10-08 00:00:00 |
    |    3 | kaushik  |   1500 | 2009-10-08 00:00:00 |
    |    4 | Chaitali |   2060 | 2008-05-20 00:00:00 |
    |    5 | Hardik   |   NULL | NULL                |
    |    6 | Komal    |   NULL | NULL                |
    |    7 | Muffy    |   NULL | NULL                |
    |    3 | kaushik  |   3000 | 2009-10-08 00:00:00 |
    |    3 | kaushik  |   1500 | 2009-10-08 00:00:00 |
    |    2 | Khilan   |   1560 | 2009-11-20 00:00:00 |
    |    4 | Chaitali |   2060 | 2008-05-20 00:00:00 |
    +------+----------+--------+---------------------+

另外,还有两个子句(亦即运算法)与 UNION 子句非常相像:

  • SQL INTERSECT 子句:用于组合两个 SELECT 语句,但是只返回两个 SELECT 语句的结果中都有的行。
  • SQL EXCEPT 子句:组合两个 SELECT 语句,并将第一个 SELECT 语句的结果中存在,但是第二个 SELECT 语句的结果中不存在的行返回。
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