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liuhui · 更新于 2018-11-28 11:00:43

Git 日志

git log命令可以显示所有的提交(commit)。

$ git log v2.5..        # commits since (not reachable from) v2.5
$ git log test..master  # commits reachable from master but not test
$ git log master..test  # commits reachable from test but not master
$ git log master...test # commits reachable from either test or
                        #    master, but not both
$ git log --since="2 weeks ago" # commits from the last 2 weeks
$ git log Makefile      # commits that modify Makefile
$ git log fs/           # commits that modify any file under fs/
$ git log -S'foo()'     # commits that add or remove any file data
                        # matching the string 'foo()'
$ git log --no-merges   # dont show merge commits

当然你也可以组合上面的命令选项;下面的命令就是找出所有从“v2.5”开始在 fs 目录下的所有 Makefile 的修改。

$ git log v2.5.. Makefile fs/

Git 会根据git log命令的参数,按时间顺序显示相关的提交(commit)。

commit f491239170cb1463c7c3cd970862d6de636ba787
Author: Matt McCutchen <matt@mattmccutchen.net>
Date:   Thu Aug 14 13:37:41 2008 -0400

    git format-patch documentation: clarify what --cover-letter does

commit 7950659dc9ef7f2b50b18010622299c508bfdfc3
Author: Eric Raible <raible@gmail.com>
Date:   Thu Aug 14 10:12:54 2008 -0700

    bash completion: 'git apply' should use 'fix' not 'strip'
    Bring completion up to date with the man page.

你也可以让 git log 显示补丁(patchs):

$ git log -p

commit da9973c6f9600d90e64aac647f3ed22dfd692f70
Author: Robert Schiele <rschiele@gmail.com>
Date:   Mon Aug 18 16:17:04 2008 +0200

    adapt git-cvsserver manpage to dash-free syntax

diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
index c2d3c90..785779e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
 SSH:

 [verse]
-export CVS_SERVER=git-cvsserver
+export CVS_SERVER="git cvsserver"
 'cvs' -d :ext:user@server/path/repo.git co <HEAD_name>

 pserver (/etc/inetd.conf):

日志统计

如果用--stat选项使用git log,它会显示在每个提交(commit)中哪些文件被修改了,这些文件分别添加或删除了多少行内容。

$ git log --stat

commit dba9194a49452b5f093b96872e19c91b50e526aa
Author: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
Date:   Sun Aug 17 15:44:11 2008 -0700

    Start 1.6.0.X maintenance series

 Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.1.txt |   15 +++++++++++++++
 RelNotes                           |    2 +-
 2 files changed, 16 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)

格式化日志

你可以按你的要求来格式化日志输出。‘--pretty'参数可以使用若干表现格式,如‘oneline':

$ git log --pretty=oneline
a6b444f570558a5f31ab508dc2a24dc34773825f dammit, this is the second time this has reverted
49d77f72783e4e9f12d1bbcacc45e7a15c800240 modified index to create refs/heads if it is not 
9764edd90cf9a423c9698a2f1e814f16f0111238 Add diff-lcs dependency
e1ba1e3ca83d53a2f16b39c453fad33380f8d1cc Add dependency for Open4
0f87b4d9020fff756c18323106b3fd4e2f422135 merged recent changes: * accepts relative alt pat
f0ce7d5979dfb0f415799d086e14a8d2f9653300 updated the Manifest file

或者你也可以使用short格式:

$ git log --pretty=short
commit a6b444f570558a5f31ab508dc2a24dc34773825f
Author: Scott Chacon <schacon@gmail.com>

    dammit, this is the second time this has reverted

commit 49d77f72783e4e9f12d1bbcacc45e7a15c800240
Author: Scott Chacon <schacon@gmail.com>

    modified index to create refs/heads if it is not there

commit 9764edd90cf9a423c9698a2f1e814f16f0111238
Author: Hans Engel <engel@engel.uk.to>

    Add diff-lcs dependency

你也可用‘medium’,‘full’,‘fuller’,‘email’ 或‘raw’如果这些格式不完全符合你的相求,你也可以用‘--pretty=format‘参数(参见:git log)来创建你自己的“格式”

$ git log --pretty=format:'%h was %an, %ar, message: %s'
a6b444f was Scott Chacon, 5 days ago, message: dammit, this is the second time this has re
49d77f7 was Scott Chacon, 8 days ago, message: modified index to create refs/heads if it i
9764edd was Hans Engel, 11 days ago, message: Add diff-lcs dependency
e1ba1e3 was Hans Engel, 11 days ago, message: Add dependency for Open4
0f87b4d was Scott Chacon, 12 days ago, message: merged recent changes:

另一个有趣的事是:你可以用--graph选项来可视化你的提交图(commit graph),就像下面这样:

$ git log --pretty=format:'%h : %s' --graph
* 2d3acf9 : ignore errors from SIGCHLD on trap
*   5e3ee11 : Merge branch 'master' of git://github.com/dustin/grit
|\  
| * 420eac9 : Added a method for getting the current branch.
* | 30e367c : timeout code and tests
* | 5a09431 : add timeout protection to grit
* | e1193f8 : support for heads with slashes in them
|/  
* d6016bc : require time for xmlschema

它会用 ASCII 字符来画出一个很漂亮的提交历史(commit history)线。

日志排序

你也可以把日志记录按一些不同的顺序来显示。注意,git 日志从最近的提交(commit)开始,并且从这里开始向它们父分支回溯。然而 git 历史可能包括多个互不关联的开发线路,这样有时提交(commits)显示出来就有点杂乱。

如果你要指定一个特定的顺序,可以为 git log 命令添加顺序参数(ordering option)。

按默认情况,提交(commits)会按逆时间(reverse chronological)顺序显示。

但是你也可以指定--topo-order参数,这就会让提交(commits)按拓朴顺序来显示(就是子提交在它们的父提交前显示). 如果你用 git log 命令按拓朴顺序来显示 git 仓库的提交日志,你会看到“开发线"(development lines)都会集合在一起。

$ git log --pretty=format:'%h : %s' --topo-order --graph
*   4a904d7 : Merge branch 'idx2'
|\  
| *   dfeffce : merged in bryces changes and fixed some testing issues
| |\  
| | * 23f4ecf : Clarify how to get a full count out of Repo#commits
| | *   9d6d250 : Appropriate time-zone test fix from halorgium
| | |\  
| | | * cec36f7 : Fix the to_hash test to run in US/Pacific time
| | * | decfe7b : fixed manifest and grit.rb to make correct gemspec
| | * | cd27d57 : added lib/grit/commit_stats.rb to the big list o' files
| | * | 823a9d9 : cleared out errors by adding in Grit::Git#run method
| | * |   4eb3bf0 : resolved merge conflicts, hopefully amicably
| | |\ \  
| | | * | d065e76 : empty commit to push project to runcoderun
| | | * | 3fa3284 : whitespace
| | | * | d01cffd : whitespace
| | | * | 7c74272 : oops, update version here too
| | | * | 13f8cc3 : push 0.8.3
| | | * | 06bae5a : capture stderr and log it if debug is true when running commands
| | | * | 0b5bedf : update history
| | | * | d40e1f0 : some docs
| | | * | ef8a23c : update gemspec to include the newly added files to manifest
| | | * | 15dd347 : add missing files to manifest; add grit test
| | | * | 3dabb6a : allow sending debug messages to a user defined logger if provided; tes
| | | * | eac1c37 : pull out the date in this assertion and compare as xmlschemaw, to avoi
| | | * | 0a7d387 : Removed debug print.
| | | * | 4d6b69c : Fixed to close opened file description.

你也可以用--date-order参数,这样显示提交日志的顺序主要按提交日期来排序。这个参数和--topo-order有一点像,没有父分支会在它们的子分支前显示,但是其它的东东还是按交时间来排序显示。你会看到"开发线"(development lines)没有集合一起,它们会像并行开发(parallel development)一样跳来跳去的:

$ git log --pretty=format:'%h : %s' --date-order --graph
*   4a904d7 : Merge branch 'idx2'
|\  
* | 81a3e0d : updated packfile code to recognize index v2
| *   dfeffce : merged in bryces changes and fixed some testing issues
| |\  
| * | c615d80 : fixed a log issue
|/ /  
| * 23f4ecf : Clarify how to get a full count out of Repo#commits
| *   9d6d250 : Appropriate time-zone test fix from halorgium
| |\  
| * | decfe7b : fixed manifest and grit.rb to make correct gemspec
| * | cd27d57 : added lib/grit/commit_stats.rb to the big list o' file
| * | 823a9d9 : cleared out errors by adding in Grit::Git#run method
| * |   4eb3bf0 : resolved merge conflicts, hopefully amicably
| |\ \  
| * | | ba23640 : Fix CommitDb errors in test (was this the right fix?
| * | | 4d8873e : test_commit no longer fails if you're not in PDT
| * | | b3285ad : Use the appropriate method to find a first occurrenc
| * | | 44dda6c : more cleanly accept separate options for initializin
| * | | 839ba9f : needed to be able to ask Repo.new to work with a bar
| | * | d065e76 : empty commit to push project to runcoderun
* | | | 791ec6b : updated grit gemspec
* | | | 756a947 : including code from github updates
| | * | 3fa3284 : whitespace
| | * | d01cffd : whitespace
| * | | a0e4a3d : updated grit gemspec
| * | | 7569d0d : including code from github updates

最后,你也可以用--reverse参数来逆向显示所有日志。

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