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极客学院团队出品 · 更新于 2018-11-28 11:00:42

SQLite 语法

SQLite 是遵循一套独特的称为语法的规则和准则。本教程列出了所有基本的 SQLite 语法,向您提供了一个 SQLite 快速入门。

大小写敏感性

有个重要的点值得注意,SQLite 是不区分大小写的,但也有一些命令是大小写敏感的,比如 GLOBglob 在 SQLite 的语句中有不同的含义。

注释

SQLite 注释是附加的注释,可以在 SQLite 代码中添加注释以增加其可读性,他们可以出现在任何空白处,包括在表达式内和其他 SQL 语句的中间,但它们不能嵌套。

SQL 注释以两个连续的 "-" 字符(ASCII 0x2d)开始,并扩展至下一个换行符(ASCII 0x0a)或直到输入结束,以先到者为准。

您也可以使用 C 风格的注释,以 "/" 开始,并扩展至下一个 "/" 字符对或直到输入结束,以先到者为准。SQLite的注释可以跨越多行。

    sqlite>.help -- This is a single line comment

SQLite 语句

所有的 SQLite 语句可以以任何关键字开始,如 SELECT、INSERT、UPDATE、DELETE、ALTER、DROP 等,所有的语句以分号(;)结束。

SQLite ANALYZE 语句:

    ANALYZE;
    or
    ANALYZE database_name;
    or
    ANALYZE database_name.table_name;

SQLite AND/OR 子句:

    SELECT column1, column2....columnN
    FROM   table_name
    WHERE  CONDITION-1 {AND|OR} CONDITION-2;

SQLite ALTER TABLE 语句:

    ALTER TABLE table_name ADD COLUMN column_def...;

SQLite ALTER TABLE 语句(Rename):

    ALTER TABLE table_name RENAME TO new_table_name;

SQLite ATTACH DATABASE 语句:

    ATTACH DATABASE 'DatabaseName' As 'Alias-Name';

SQLite BEGIN TRANSACTION 语句:

    BEGIN;
    or
    BEGIN EXCLUSIVE TRANSACTION;

SQLite BETWEEN 子句:

    SELECT column1, column2....columnN
    FROM   table_name
    WHERE  column_name BETWEEN val-1 AND val-2;

SQLite COMMIT 语句:

    COMMIT;

SQLite CREATE INDEX 语句:

    CREATE INDEX index_name
    ON table_name ( column_name COLLATE NOCASE );

SQLite CREATE UNIQUE INDEX 语句:

    CREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_name
    ON table_name ( column1, column2,...columnN);

SQLite CREATE TABLE 语句:

    CREATE TABLE table_name(
       column1 datatype,
       column2 datatype,
       column3 datatype,
       .....
       columnN datatype,
       PRIMARY KEY( one or more columns )
    );

SQLite CREATE TRIGGER 语句:

    CREATE TRIGGER database_name.trigger_name
    BEFORE INSERT ON table_name FOR EACH ROW
    BEGIN
       stmt1;
       stmt2;
       ....
    END;

SQLite CREATE VIEW 语句:

    CREATE VIEW database_name.view_name  AS
    SELECT statement....;

SQLite CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE 语句:

    CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE database_name.table_name USING weblog( access.log );
    or
    CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE database_name.table_name USING fts3( );

SQLite COMMIT TRANSACTION 语句:

    COMMIT;

SQLite COUNT 子句:

    SELECT COUNT(column_name)
    FROM   table_name
    WHERE  CONDITION;

SQLite DELETE 语句:

    DELETE FROM table_name
    WHERE  {CONDITION};

SQLite DETACH DATABASE 语句:

    DETACH DATABASE 'Alias-Name';

SQLite DISTINCT 子句:

    SELECT DISTINCT column1, column2....columnN
    FROM   table_name;

SQLite DROP INDEX 语句:

    DROP INDEX database_name.index_name;

SQLite DROP TABLE 语句:

    DROP TABLE database_name.table_name;

SQLite DROP VIEW 语句:

    DROP INDEX database_name.view_name;

SQLite DROP TRIGGER 语句:

    DROP INDEX database_name.trigger_name;

SQLite EXISTS 子句:

    SELECT column1, column2....columnN
    FROM   table_name
    WHERE  column_name EXISTS (SELECT * FROM   table_name );

SQLite EXPLAIN 语句:

    EXPLAIN INSERT statement...;
    or
    EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT statement...;

SQLite GLOB 子句:

    SELECT column1, column2....columnN
    FROM   table_name
    WHERE  column_name GLOB { PATTERN };

SQLite GROUP BY 子句:

    SELECT SUM(column_name)
    FROM   table_name
    WHERE  CONDITION
    GROUP BY column_name;

SQLite HAVING 子句:

    SELECT SUM(column_name)
    FROM   table_name
    WHERE  CONDITION
    GROUP BY column_name
    HAVING (arithematic function condition);

SQLite INSERT INTO 语句:

    INSERT INTO table_name( column1, column2....columnN)
    VALUES ( value1, value2....valueN);

SQLite IN 子句:

    SELECT column1, column2....columnN
    FROM   table_name
    WHERE  column_name IN (val-1, val-2,...val-N);

SQLite Like 子句:

    SELECT column1, column2....columnN
    FROM   table_name
    WHERE  column_name LIKE { PATTERN };

SQLite NOT IN 子句:

    SELECT column1, column2....columnN
    FROM   table_name
    WHERE  column_name NOT IN (val-1, val-2,...val-N);

SQLite ORDER BY 子句:

    SELECT column1, column2....columnN
    FROM   table_name
    WHERE  CONDITION
    ORDER BY column_name {ASC|DESC};

SQLite PRAGMA 语句:

    PRAGMA pragma_name;

    For example:

    PRAGMA page_size;
    PRAGMA cache_size = 1024;
    PRAGMA table_info(table_name);

SQLite RELEASE SAVEPOINT 语句:

    RELEASE savepoint_name;

SQLite REINDEX 语句:

    REINDEX collation_name;
    REINDEX database_name.index_name;
    REINDEX database_name.table_name;

SQLite ROLLBACK 语句:

    ROLLBACK;
    or
    ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT savepoint_name;

SQLite SAVEPOINT 语句:

    SAVEPOINT savepoint_name;

SQLite SELECT 语句:

    SELECT column1, column2....columnN
    FROM   table_name;

SQLite UPDATE 语句:

    UPDATE table_name
    SET column1 = value1, column2 = value2....columnN=valueN
    [ WHERE  CONDITION ];

SQLite VACUUM 语句:

    VACUUM;

SQLite WHERE 子句:

    SELECT column1, column2....columnN
    FROM   table_name
    WHERE  CONDITION;
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